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I sent my DNA to Living DNA, Family Tree DNA, and

Overview

Personal genetics

Commercials abound for DNA testing services that will help you learn where your ancestors came from or connect you with relatives. I’ve been interested in my family history for a long time. I knew basically where our roots were: the British Isles, Germany and Hungary. But the ads tempted me to dive deeper.

moncler outlet uk Previous experience taught me that (SN: 5/26/18, p. 28). And I knew that a company can match people only to relatives in its customer base, so if I wanted to find as many relatives cheap moncler sale as possible, I would need to use multiple companies. I sent my DNA to Living DNA, Family Tree DNA, and. I also bought the National Geographic Geno 2.0 app through the company Helix. Helix read, or sequenced, my DNA, then sent the data moncler outlet store to National Geographic to analyze. moncler outlet uk

cheap moncler outlet These companies analyze hundreds of thousands of natural DNA spelling moncler sale outlet variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. To estimate ethnic makeup, a company compares your overall SNP pattern with those of people from around the world. SNP matches also help companies see who in their database you’re related to. cheap moncler outlet

Some of the companies also analyze a person’s Y chromosome or mitochondrial DNA. Y chromosome DNA traces a man’s paternal line. In contrast, mitochondrial DNA traces maternal heritage Cheap Moncler , since people inherit mitochondria, which generate energy for cells, only from their mothers. Neither type of DNA changes that much over time, so those tests usually can’t tell you much about recent ancestors.

Once I sent in DNA samples, my Web based results arrived in just a few weeks. But my user experience, and results, were quite different for each company.

moncler jacket sale National Geographic Geno 2.0 moncler jacket sale

MOTHERLINE National Geographic Geno 2.0 shows how a customer’s maternal line migrated and changed across time, as determined by analyses of mitochondrial DNA. A heat map indicates where members of your maternal line are most prevalent. National Geographic moncler sale Geno 2.0″ MOTHERLINE National Geographic Geno 2.0 shows how a customer’s maternal line migrated and changed cheap moncler jackets across time, as determined by analyses of mitochondrial DNA. A heat map indicates where members of your maternal line are most prevalent. National Geographic Geno 2.0″

moncler outlet jackets At $199.95, National Geographic’s test is the most expensive, yet the least useful. The results are generic, and the ethnicity categories are overly broad. My results say that 45 percent of my heritage came from people living in southwestern Europe 500 to 10,000 years ago. That doesn’t tell me much and doesn’t reflect what I know of my family history. moncler outlet jackets

moncler sale outlet ProsSpecialized for looking into the deep pastConsProvides no ancestry information within the last 500 years moncler sale outlet

There’s no relative matching, though Geno 2.0 shows which historical “geniuses” may have shared your mitochondrial or Y chromosome DNA. I don’t know how National Geographic knows about the mitochondria of Petrarch, Copernicus or Abraham Lincoln. So I’m skeptical that I am actually related to those famous figures, even from the distance of 65,000 years, the last time we supposedly had an ancestor in common. The service also calculated the percentage of Neandertal ancestry that I carry. I take geeky pride that 1.5 percent of my DNA comes from Neandertals, topping the 1.3 percent average for Geno 2.0 customers.

cheap moncler coats Overall, Geno 2.0 has a nice presentation, but I learned more about my family history elsewhere. Since I bought the Geno 2.0 kit as an app through Helix https://www.moncleroutletmall.com , I don’t know if the kit purchased directly from National Geographic, which is processed by Family Tree DNA, would yield different results. cheap moncler coats

moncler outlet store Living DNA moncler outlet store

cheap moncler ENGLISH ANCESTRY Living DNA offers fine scale ethnicity estimates for people of British or Irish descent (Saey’s results shown). The company is less certain about subregional estimates than it is about global estimates. Living DNA” ENGLISH ANCESTRY Living DNA offers fine scale ethnicity estimates for people of British or Irish descent (Saey’s results shown). The company is less certain about subregional estimates than it is about global estimates. Living DNA” cheap moncler

Another expensive test ($159) came from Living DNA. When I saw the company’s ad claiming to pinpoint exactly where in the British Isles a person’s genetic roots stem from, I decided to give it a go. The company highlights ethnicity on a world map, then lets you zoom in from the continent level. I found that 22.5 percent of my heritage came from Lincolnshire in east central cheap moncler England. I haven’t yet traced any ancestors to Lincolnshire, but I did find through much genealogical sleuthing that one of my sixth great grandfathers came from Aberdeen, Scotland. Living DNA says that 3.1 percent of my DNA is from Aberdeenshire. Written narratives on the website provide a history of each reported region.

ProsOffers detailed ethnicity estimates for people of British or Irish descentConsCan’t link relatives to a family tree

moncler factory outlet Using mitochondrial DNA and, if applicable, Y chromosome DNA, the company can trace your maternal and paternal lines back to human origins in Africa and show where and when your particular line probably branched off the original. My “motherline” probably arose in the Near East 19,000 to 26,000 years ago, Living DNA claims, and my ancestors were some of the first people to enter buy moncler jackets Europe. In February, the company announced that it would soon launch a relative matching service for its customers. moncler factory outlet

moncler outlet sale I’m not sure the service would be worth the price tag for people whose ancestry doesn’t contain a strong British or Irish tilt, though Living DNA says it is working to improve ethnicity estimates in Germany and elsewhere. moncler outlet sale

Family Tree DNA

moncler jackets outlet ANCIENT DNA MATCHES Family Tree DNA is the only company Saey tried that compares customers’ DNA with that of ancient modern humans. But based on the results’ presentation, it wasn’t clear whether Saey actually shares DNA with the ancient people indicated on the map (shown). Family Tree DNA” ANCIENT DNA MATCHES Family Tree DNA is the only company Saey tried that compares customers’ DNA with that of ancient modern humans. But based on the results’ presentation, it wasn’t clear whether Saey actually shares DNA with the ancient people indicated on the map (shown). Family Tree DNA” moncler jackets outlet

cheap moncler jackets sale The most no frills of the bunch is Family Tree DNA. For $79, “autosomal” testing looks for genetic variants on all of the chromosomes except the X and Y sex chromosomes. Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analysis costs extra. cheap moncler jackets sale

ProsIncorporates DNA results into family treesConsDoesn’t explain results wellWebsite is hard to navigate

moncler outlet online Family Tree DNA allows a user to build a family tree, incorporating personal DNA tests and matches from the site’s relative matching section. I found more than 2,400 potential cheap moncler coats relatives. A chromosome viewer lets me see exactly which bit of DNA I have in common with any particular relative, or with up to five relatives at a time. That feature also allows users to trace how they inherited DNA from a shared ancestor. But I found this tool difficult to use. moncler outlet online

moncler outlet The website offers little explanation of results. For instance, I was excited to see that my DNA was compared with that of ancient Europeans, including, who lived 5,300 years ago (SN: 9/17/16, p. 9). Family Tree DNA is the only company I tried that moncler outlet online incorporates ancient DNA into its results and that feature was what convinced me try this company. I did get moncler mens jackets a breakdown of how different groups Stone monlcer down jackets Age hunter gatherers, early farmers and “Metal Age Invaders” from the Eurasian steppes contributed to my DNA. For instance, Saey inherited from her dad a bit of DNA on chromosome 15 that carries western Asian and northern African heritage (purple). ” MELTING POT color codes parts of chromosomes according to the ethnic group that contributed the DNA. For instance, Saey inherited from her dad a bit of DNA on chromosome 15 that carries western Asian and northern African heritage (purple). ” moncler outlet

($99) offers one of the more complete packages of information. Most companies show a map of ethnic heritage. does, too, but also presents an interactive diagram of all of a person’s chromosomes, indicating which portions carry a particular ethnic ancestry. Because my parents also did, I learned that my dad handed me a tiny bit of chromosome 15 that carries western Asian and northern African heritage. My mom gave me the 0.3 percent of my DNA that comes from the Balkans, in a single chunk on chromosome 7, which makes sense moncler outlet since her grandparents came from Hungary. Playing with the chromosomes is fun. But I question the accuracy of these results (see my related article for more on ).

ProsExplains results wellConsCan’t link relatives to a family tree

moncler sale presents Neandertal heritage in terms of the number of genetic cheap moncler outlet variants you carry. A family and friends scoreboard shows where you stack up. (I top my leaderboard with 296 Neandertal variants, more than what 80 percent of customers have.) The report also explains what some of those Neandertal variants do, including ones linked to back hair, straight hair, height and whether you’re likely to sneeze after eating dark chocolate. The company doesn’t test for all possible Neandertal variants, including (SN Online: 10/10/17; SN: 3/5/16, p. 18). moncler sale

Like Geno 2.0, uses mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA to trace the migration patterns of a person’s ancestors, from Africa to the present day.

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